Calorie Restriction and Fasting Diets: What Do We Know?

You may have heard of calorie restriction and fasting diets and wondered why they are getting so much attention in the news. Aren’t there other conditions to lose weight?

no, I do not. Calorie restriction means reducing your average daily calorie intake to normal or normal, with or without essential nutrients. On a fasting diet, no one eats or strictly limits their intake at certain times of the day, week or month. The practical effect of a fasting diet may be fewer calories because there is less time to eat regularly.

These food samples are being explored as possible ways to maintain good health and longevity. There are no temporary weight loss plans. Interest in its potential health and aging benefits stems from decades of research, including insects, crabs, snails, fruit flies, and rats. In many experiments, a low-calorie diet delayed the onset of age-related disorders and in some studies extended age.

Looking at these results in animals, researchers are investigating how calorie restriction or fasting affects people’s health and age. Many studies show that obese and overweight people who lose weight on a diet can improve their health. But scientists still have a long way to go to learn how calorie restriction and fasting affect people who are not overweight, including the elderly. They don’t even know if these food samples are safe or possible in the long run. In short, there is not enough evidence to recommend such a diet to the public.

What are the different forms of calorie restriction and fasting?

Calorie restriction is a consistent pattern of reducing the average daily calorie intake, while the fasting diet focuses primarily on the frequency of meals. Whether or not a fasting diet can limit calorie intake during the non-fasting period.

There are different types of fasting, sometimes called “intermittent fasting”. You may have read about it:

  • Meal time in a limited time A limited number of meals are eaten (for example, 6 to 8 hours) Every day, nothing is used during the other hours.
  • Fasting every other day: Eat unlimited every other day and you cannot consume calories or you can consume some calories between days.
  • 5: 2 Eating pattern: 5 consecutive days a week without restriction, then 2 days limited calorie intake.
  • Frequent fasting: Calorie intake is limited to several consecutive days, for example, once a month for 5 consecutive days, and not to other days.

Calorie Restriction
Calorie Restriction

What is the evidence from animal studies?

More animals have been researched on calorie restriction than fasting. In some experiments, a calorie restriction is also a form of fasting because laboratory animals eat all their assigned food within hours each day and without eating for several hours.

In these studies, when rats and other animals were given 10 to 40 percent fewer calories than usual but were provided with all the necessary nutrients, many people lived longer and reduced the rate of various diseases, especially tumors. However, some studies have not shown this benefit and, in some strains of mice, calorie restriction has reduced age rather than increased it.

In insects, C. elegans, fasting food increased life expectancy by 40%. A study with fruit flies found that calorie restriction, but not intermittent fasting, was associated with longevity. A study of male mice found that fasting every other day for a lifetime increases longevity, mainly by delaying the aging process rather than delaying the onset of cancer.

The study, conducted by Reesecollaboration with the National Institute on Aging (NIA) Monkeys, sought to determine whether the benefits of calorie restriction were found in long-lived species. In both studies, monkeys were kept on a low-calorie diet (30% fewer calories than monkeys in the control groups) for more than 20 years. Although there were differences between the two studies, including the breed and diet of the monkeys, both provided evidence that calorie restriction reduced the incidence of age-related conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. One study found an extension of shelf life, while another did not. Many monkeys are still alive, so the full effect of the calorie restriction on their maximum age has not yet been determined.

What is the evidence from human studies on calorie restriction?

Some of the study’s findings suggest that calorie restriction may have health benefits for humans, but more research is needed to understand its long-term effects. There is no human data on the relationship between calorie restriction and longevity.

Some people have volunteered for many years to practice extreme calorie restriction with the belief that it will prolong life or preserve health. Studies of these individuals have found significantly lower levels of risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Studies have also found many other physical effects with uncertain long-term benefits and risks, as well as a decrease in sexual interest and the ability to maintain body temperature in cold climates. These people usually use various dietary supplements, which limit their knowledge of the effects of calorie restriction compared to other factors.

To make a more rigorous study of calorie restriction in humans, the NIA supported a major medical study called Comprehensive Long-Term Effects Diagnosis of Low Energy Consumption (CALERIE).

In the CALERIE study, 218 young and middle-aged adults, normal weight or overweight, were randomly divided into two groups. People in the experimental group were asked to follow a low-calorie diet for 2 years, while those in the control group followed a normal diet.

The study was designed to ensure that participants in the experimental group ate 25% fewer calories than they used to before the study. Although he did not achieve this goal, he reduced his daily calorie intake by 12% and maintained a 10% weight loss for 2 years. A follow-up study 2 years after the end of the intervention found that participants experienced more weight loss.

Note that calorie restriction regimens applied to significant no normal body weight are achieved, resulting in weight loss with hunger calorie restriction or weight limit gay. kylury study.

Compared to participants in the control group, those in the calorie group had reduced risk factors (low blood pressure and low cholesterol) for age-related diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. They also showed some inflammatory factors and a decrease in thyroid hormones. There is some evidence that lower levels of these measures are associated with longevity and a lower risk of age-related disease. Furthermore, no negative (and some favorable) effects on quality of life, mood, were found in calorie-restricted individuals’ sexual function and sleep.

Calorie restriction surgery resulted in a slight decrease in bone density, lean body, and aerobic capacity (the body’s ability to use oxygen during exercise). However, based on the participants’ weight loss, this reduction was generally not higher than expected. Other short-term studies have shown that combining physical activity with calorie restriction protects against loss of bone, muscle, and aerobic mass.

Some CALERIE participants also experienced short episodes of anemia (a decrease in the number of red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body). Overall, these results suggest that although calorie restriction is safe for people of normal weight or moderately obese, clinical monitoring is recommended.

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